Product placement

Product placement , also known as embedded marketing , [1] [2] [3] [4] is a technical marketing in which references to specific brands intent to promote said product.

While references to brands Voluntarily May be incorporated into fictional works in an attempt to Maintain a feeling of realism gold upon how the brand Itself, [5] product placement is the deliberate incorporation of a brand or product into a work in exchange for compensation. Product placements can range from unobtrusive appearances of a product to an environment, to prominent integration and acknowledgment of the product within the work. For example, the producers of a film or television program may be paid for and present specific brands of automobiles or consumer electronics within, [6] or works produced by vertically integrated conglomerates (such as Sonymay include placements of products from their other divisions as a form of corporate synergy .

In the 21st century, the use of product on television has grown, especially to combat the use of digital video recorders , and to engage with younger demographics. [7] Digital editing technology has been used in the aftermarket, and there is no need for new business. . [6]



Product placement began in the nineteenth century. By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days (1873), his fame had to be mentioned in the story. Whether Verne was actually paid to do so, however, remains unknown. [8] Also, a painting by Eduoard Manet (1881-1882) shows a bar at Folies Bergere with distinctive bottles placed at either end of the counter. The beer bottle is immediately recognizable as Bass beer. Manet’s motives for the production of products in his painting are unknown; It may be that it is simply added to the work of authenticity, but it is not possible for it to be included.[9]

Research reported by Jean-Marc Lehu (2007) suggests that films produced by Auguste and Louis Lumiere in 1876, were made at the request of a representative of Lever Brothers in France, and which feature Sunlight soap, may be the first recorded instance of paid product placement in film. [10] This channel is used for product placement.

With the arrival of photo-rich periodicals in the late 19th century, publishers found ways of lifting their paper’s reputation by placing a prominent person. For example, the German magazine Die Woche in 1902 printed an article about a countess in her castle where she, in one of the photographs, held a copy of Die Woche in her hands. [11]

Product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest news and cinematic attractions that were the first ten years of cinema history. [12]

During the next four decades, Harrison’s Reports frequently cited cases of on-screen brand-name products. [13] He condemned the practice as harmful to movie theaters. Publisher PS Harrison’s editorials reflected his hostility towards product placement in films. An editorial in Harrison’s Reports criticized the collaboration between the Corona Typewriter company and the First National Pictures when a Corona typewriter appeared in the film The Lost World (1925). [14] Harrison’s reports criticized several incidents of Corona typewriters appearing in mid-1920s films.

Recognizable brand names appeared in movies from cinema’s earliest history. Tom Gunning has been described as “cinematic attractions”, [15] short films of one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film (1895-1907) audiences attended movies as “fairground attractions” interesting for their then-amazing visual effects. This format is better suited to product placement than narrative cinema. Gurevich argued that early cinematic attractions were more common with television advertisements in the 1950s than they do with traditional movies. [16]Gurevich suggests that a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is intertwined. [17] Segrave detailed the industries that advertised in these early films. [18] In the 1920s, Harrison’s Reports published its first denunciation of that practice on Red Crown gasoline appearance in The Garage (1920). [19]

Movies and television

Early film

A feature film that has expectations of reaching millions of viewers. [20]

In many cases no payment is made for product exposure and no promise of marketing is made when consumer brands appear in movies. citation needed ] Film productions need props for movies, so each movie is a master property , who is responsible for gathering movie props, product placement contacts, or product companies directly. In addition to items for on-screen use, the product / service could provide Tapping product placement channels may be particularly useful for a product that is required.

One of the earliest examples is The Garage , a Buster Keaton / “Fatty” Arbuckle comedy which featured the logo of Red Crown gasoline in several scenes (though there is no definitive proof that this product placement was paid for). Fritz Lang ‘s Dr. Mabuse the Gambler (1922) contained a prominent title in the opening credits “The gowns of the female stars were designed by Vally Reinecke and made in the fashion studios of Flatow-Schädler und Mossner.”

Among notable silent films to feature product placement was Wings (1927), the first to win the Academy Award for Best Picture . It is a plug for Hershey’s chocolate . Fritz Lang’s M movie (released in 1931) shows a banner display for Wrigley’s PK Chewing Gum , for approximately 20-30 seconds.

Another early example appears in Horse Feathers (1932), where Thelma Todd’s character falls out of a canoe and into a river. She calls for a ” life saver ” and Groucho Marx tosses her Life Savers candy. It’s a Wonderful Life(1946) depicts a young boy with aspirations to be an explorer, displaying a prominent copy of National Geographic . In Love Happy (1949), Harpo cavorts on a rooftop among various billboards and at one point from the villains on the old Mobil logo, the “Flying Red Horse”. Harrison’s Reportsseverely criticized this scene in its film review [21] and in a front-page editorial. In Gun Crazy (1949), the climactic crime is the payroll robbery of the Armor meat-packing plant, WHERE a Bulova clock is prominently displayed.

Later movies

The Cannonball Run and Smokey and the bandit movie series featured conspicuous placements. The movie ET is Often Cited for ict multiple, Obvious investments.

In the New World Pictures dub of The Return of Godzilla , Godzilla 1984 , Dr. Pepper is in charge of a product of the film. The two drinks are often shown drinking the soft drink.

Cheerios and Coca-Cola had product placement in the Andrew Lloyd Webber Musical Evita and Superman: The Movie and the Sequel Superman II . Clark Kent eats Cheerios for breakfast in Smallville. In Superman II ‘ s climax, Superman crashes into a giant Coca – Cola advertisement and saves a bus full of people bearing an ad for Evita , before he smashes into a Marlboro delivery truck.

Perhaps the most important example of product placement comes in the film Cast Away in which the Tom Hanks lead character is a FedEx employee. References to the FedEx delivery are in almost every scene in the film, with the FedEx logo and name preposterously over-emphasized. The Internship (2013), which features two jobs at Google , was described by Tom Brook of BBC as “a huge advertisement for Google” which “took a product placement to a startling new extreme”. [22]

Early television

In other early media, eg, radio in the 1930s and 1940s and television in the 1950s, programs were often underwritten by companies. Soap operas were so-named because they were originally underwritten by consumer packaged goods companies such as Procter & Gamble or Unilever . When television began to displace radio, DuMont’s Cavalcade of Stars television show was, in its era, notable for not relying on a sole sponsor . Sponsorship continues with programs such as Hallmark Cards .

The conspicuous display of Studebaker motor vehicles in the television series Mr. Ed (1961-1966), qui Was sponsored by the Studebaker Corporation from 1961 to 1963 as well as the display of Ford vehicles on the series Hazel(1961-1966), which were sponsored by the Ford Motor Company from 1961 to 1965, are notable examples of television product placement.


Investments in two categories: those which are given to reduce production costs and replace them for compensation. [23] Lotz refers to two classifications within these two categories, what are they referring to as “basic” and “advanced”. Basic placement is when the logo of an object is not visible to the brand. Advanced placement is when the product is in the show or movie. [24]

Barter and service deals are also common practices. Content providers may trade product placements for help funding opportunities with a movie’s release, a show’s new season or other event. [25]

A variation of product placement is advertisement placement . In this case an advertisement for the product (rather than the product itself) is production. Examples include a Lucky Strike cigarette advertisement was billboard or a truck with a milk advertisement is icts trailer.


Placing new products for existing content creates new opportunities for marketers. [26] Current product placements may be added to rerun or released on video. [27] [28] [29]

Examples include Numb3rs and Still Standing ; where a scene may have been added, possibly for each airing. [30]

As of 2007, dynamic or switchable investments became possible. Investments can be tailored to such factors as demographics, psychographics or behavioral information about the consumer. In-game advertising vendors such as: Massive Incorporated transmit user information to their servers, such as individual player IDs and data about what was on the screen and for how long, enabling user-specific placements. [31]

Hypervideo techniques can insert interactive elements into video.

Brand integration

A variation of product placement is brand integration, which varies from place to place in the context of a product that contributes to the narrative and creates an environment that is more important than that produced by advanced placement. ” [32] While this kind of advertising is common is unscripted shows Such As The Apprentice , it can be used in aussi scripted television . [32] An early example by Abercrombie & Fitch , when one of its stores provided the notion of coming out of the romantic comedy movie Man’s Favorite Sport? (1964). On All My Children took a job at Revlon. [32] The character’s job became part of the character’s development. [33]

Jurassic Park not only prominently features Ford cars and other commercial products, but also includes a scene displaying its own promotional merchandise. One shot shows the “Jurassic Park Souvenir Store”, with products that it offered for sale to fans.

Product displacement

According to Danny Boyle , Slumdog Millionaire film director (2008), the makers used ” product displacement ” to accommodate such sponsors as Mercedes-Benz that refused to allow their products to be used in non-flattering settings. While Mercedes did not mind having a gangster driving their cars, they were shown to be shown in a slum . The makers removed logos digitally in post-production, costing “tens of thousands of pounds”. When these issues are brought up in filming, production companies often resort to “greeking”, the practice of simply covering logos with tape.

Similarly, in The Blues Brothers (1980), portions of the Dixie Square Mall defunct in Harvey, Ill. , Were reconstructed in facade and used as the scene of an indoor chase. Signage belonging to mall tenants was replaced with that of other vendors; for instance, in Walgreens would become a Toys “R” Us . [34]

Cars (2006) NASCAR parodies, an advertising-heavy sport which controversially has long been allowed alcohol and tobacco sponsorships. NASCAR’s sponsors have been replaced by fictional or parody brands ; Dinoco Oil takes pride of place, followed by a string of invented automotive aftermarket products as pharmacy or medical brands. “Dale Earnhardt Inc.” displaced “Junior # 8″ ‘s sponsor Budweiser to Avoid advertising beer in a Disney feature. NASCAR’s ” Winston Cup ” trophy became the Piston Cup .[35] [36]

Audio vs visual

Investments can be sound-only, visual-only or a combination of the two. The Russian television show дом-2 (dos Dom-2 ) (similar to Big Brother ) often features participants stating something along the lines of, “Oh, did you check out the new product X by company Y yet?” after which the camera zooms in on the product, expressing an audio reference with a visual image. In The Real World / Road Challenge Rules participants often make a similar message, usually speaking to the mobile device.

Advertiser-produced programming

In 2010 Wal-Mart Walks with Procter & Gamble to produce Secrets of the Mountain and The Jensen Project , both family-oriented movies that display the characters using Wal-Mart and Procter & Gamble-branded products. The Jensen Project featured a preview of Kinect . [37] [38]

Self promotion

20th Century Fox regularly uses their sister Fox News and Sky News Channels; which channel is featured in a movie depends on its setting. The character typically stated that the audience is viewing Sky News. One example appears in the 1996 film Independence Day and Mission: Impossible .


The pilot of the NBC sitcom 30 Rock featured the General Electric (at the time 80% owner of NBC) Trivision oven , [39] was a joke by the show’s creator. [40] The later parodied placement. [41]

The 1988 film The Return of the Killer Tomatoes mocked the concept-at one point, the movie stops, for lack of money. The film ‘s producer steps in, suggesting product placement as a way to continue. This was followed by many scenes with a product placement, including a Pepsi billboard installed in front of the villain’s mansion.

The film Fight Club , directed by David Fincher , is the most important film in the film. citation needed ] Examples include the scene where the Apple Store is broken into, the scene in which Brad Pitt and Edward Norton smash the headlights of a new Volkswagen Beetle , and try to blow up a “popular coffee franchise”, a thinly veiled dig at Starbucks .

The movie Superstar , starring Will Ferrell and Molly Shannon , shows every resident in town driving Volkswagen New Beetle , possibly for comic effect. Similarly, the movie Mr. Deeds shows Adam Sandler’s character purchasing a Chevrolet Corvette for every resident of his town.

Wayne’s World showed Wayne and Garth decrying product placement while looking directly at the camera, holding up a product, smiling and sometimes giving a thumbs-up.

Kung Pow! Enter the Fist of its product investments, highlighting the anachronistic inclusion of a Taco Bell . In a similar vein, in Looney Tunes: Back In Action , the main characters stumble across Wal-Mart while stranded in the middle of Death Valley and acquiring supplies just for providing endorsement. Kannagi: Crazy Shrine Maidens poked fun at its sponsor Sony by having one character to another Blu-ray Disc with the tagline “It’s a Sony”, only for them to complain that they do not have a Blu-ray player, to which the character responds with a version in Betamax .

False investments

Further information: Fictional brands

X-Files (1993-2002) Frequently featured the fictional Morley brand of cigarettes, the choice of the Smoking Cigarette Man . The company Producing Morleys Was aussi Involved in a cover-up conspiracy, Brand X .

Ghostbusters had a fake product in the climax of the movie when the team faces the Stay Puft Marshmallow Man .

The Truman Showled false investments to advance the narrative of the reality television set. The protagonist’s wife places products in front of hidden cameras, even naming them in dialogue with her husband. This increases Truman’s suspicions as he arrives to realize his surroundings are intentionally fabricated.

Some filmmakers created fictional products that appear in multiple movies. Citation needed ] Examples include Kevin Smith (Nails Cigarettes, Mooby Corporation , Chewlees Gum Discreeto Burritos) and Quentin Tarantino (Red Apple Cigarettes, Jack Rabbit Slim’s Restaurants, Big Kahuna Burger ). This Went Even Further with the fictional brand Binford Tools qui Appeared in TV shows Home Improvement and Last Man Standing and in the Toy Story movie franchise all starring Tim Allen .

This practice est fairly common in some comics , Such As Svetlana Chmakova ‘s Dramacon , qui Makes Several product-placement-esque use of “Pawky” (a modification of the name of the Japanese snack ” Pocky “, popular Among animates and manga fans) gold Naoko Takeuchi ‘s Sailor Moon , qui includes Numerous references to the series Codename: Sailor V , qui from Sailor Moon Was spun off.

This practice is also common in certain “reality-based” video games such as the Grand Theft Auto series , which features such fictitious stores as Ammu-Nation, Vinyl Countdown, Gash (spoofing Gap ) Zip, Pizza Boy, etc.

Reverse placement

So-called “reverse product placement” creates a real fictional setting. [42] For example, in 2007, 7-Eleven rebranded 11 of its American stores and one Canadian store as ” Kwik-E-Marts “, selling versions of products seen in episodes of The Simpsons , such as Buzz Cola and Krusty-O’s cereal. [43] In 1997, Acme Communications was created as a chain of real television stations; the firm is named for the fictional Acme Corporation of Fame Warner Brothers . Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) A real Willy Wonka candy company, soon after the movie’s release.

In 1949, Crazy Eddie was created as a fictional dealer in the film A Letter to Three Wives . [44] That name, bestowed in 1971 on a real-life electronics chain in New York City , appeared in 1984 as and advertising investment in Splash . A 1989 parody, UHF , returned to fiction by depicting Crazy Ernie pitching, “buy this car or I’ll club a seal” as a TV ad campaign .

Music and recording industries

While radio stations and television stations are regulated by national governments,

In 2008, The Kluger Agency was claimed [45] to have proposed placement of Double Happiness Jeans , [46] a virtual sweatshop created as part of the Invisible Threads project for the 2008 Sundance Festival , in a Pussycat Dollssong for a fee. [47] The firm was not intended to represent a commercial product. It had been invented as a collaboration between Jeff Crouse of the Anti-Advertising Agency and Stephanie Rothenberg . While the product is technically existed at the time, Double Happiness is a critical piece.[48]

In January 2009, Migra Corridos , has 5-song EP including accordion ballad “El Mas Grande Enemigo”, had received airplay on twenty-five Mexican radio stations. The tune purports to be the lament of a would-be Arizona desert by coyotes (people smugglers) . [49] No disclosure was made to the radio stations that the US Border Patrol had commissioned the project with content devised by Elevación, a Hispanic advertising agency based in Washington, DC and New York City . [50]

In 2010, a video for Lady Gaga ‘s ” Telephone ” was panned by critics for displaying nine brands in nine minutes (including her own line of heartbeats headphones), many as paid product investments. [51] PlentyofFish website include Natasha Bedingfield’s ” Touch “, Flo Rida and Akon’s ” Available “, Jason Derulo’s ” Ridin ‘Solo “, [52] and 3OH! 3 ‘ s ” Double Vision “. [53]

In 2011, Britney Spears ‘ video for ” Hold It Against Me ” advertised PlentyofFish and Sony ; One Washington Post review denounced the video as an informercial . [54]

Jennifer Lopez ‘s Fiat -sponsored music video ” Papi ” was edited for broadcast as a 30-second advertisement for the Fiat 500 Cabrio in 2011. [55] The original video aussi advertised BlackBerry , All , Planet Love Match and Crown Royal . [56]

Alcohol advertising in music videos from Curtin University in Perth , Australia in 2011. An Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC) exists in Australia to handle complaints, [57] Purpose of Midori Liquor in Cobra Starship ‘s ” You Make Me Feel … “was judged not to be alcohol advertising. [58]


South African football comic book Supa Strikas accepts product placement to allow for the comic’s free distribution. Product placement throughout the publication; on shirts, billboards and signage, and through the branding of locations or scenarios.

Supa Strikas receives the majority of its support from Chevron , via its Caltex and Texaco brands.

In markets where Chevron lacks presence, other brands step in, eg, Visa in Kenya , Uganda and Tanzania . Other brands include their logos, and the branding of locations and scenarios. These companies include Metropolitan Life , Nike , Spur Steak Ranches and the South African National Roads Agency , among others. [59]

Other titles adopted the same system, including Supa Tigers and Strike Zone cricket comic.


Product placement has long been prevalent in sports at all levels.


While now-defunct NFL Europe licensed by the National Football League (NFL) does not. For instance, the league prohibits logos of sponsors on the grounds of the Gillette Stadium in Foxborough, Massachusetts , has their stadium logomark painted over the FieldTurf field. In 2008, the league allowed the sponsors of the uniforms, but not game uniforms.

In 1991, the league allowed their NFL-related products. Since 2012, Nike has been the league’s official uniform supplier.

Two of the league’s flagship teams-the Green Bay Packers and the Pittsburgh Steelers -early on their identity from corporate sponsors. The Packers adopted the name “Packers” because they were sponsored by the Indian Packing Company . They later had “ACME PACKERS” written on their uniforms in the early 1920s after the Indian Packing Acme Packing Company. The Steelers adopted their current logo in 1962 as a product-placement deal with the American Iron and Steel Institute , which owned the rights to the Steelmark logo. The Steelers later were allowed to add “-ers” to the Steelmark logo the following year so that they could own a trademark on the logo.pre-NFL predecessors in the Pittsburgh area.)

The league has laid itself. NFL Japan was a sponsor of the football-themed anime series Eyeshield 21 .


In the automotive racing, the concept of the factory-backed contestant, who are provided with vehicles and technical support in their competition, dates in NASCAR to the 1950s and Marshall Teague’s factory-backed Fabulous Hudson Hornet . “Win on Sunday, sell on Monday” was a common adage among automakers. [60]

Notable Investments

Automobiles , apparel , beverages , home goods , furniture , consumer electronics , computers , restaurants , financial institutions , travel , airlines and websites are just a few of the product categories.

Fedex provided vehicles, access, and logistical support for the making of Cast Away . The film depicted real Fedex Rentals, and the company’s CEO appeared in one scene.


The most common products to be promoted in this way are automobiles. Frequently, all the important vehicles in a film or television series are supplied by one manufacturer.

Luxury vehicles like Aston Martin , Mercedes , Audi , BMW , Cadillac utilize branding in movies like Iron Man 3 , [61] Specter , [62] and Jurassic World . [63] Mission: Impossible – Rogue Nation [64]

Cars (2006) portrays a mix of real and fictional vehicles as characters. None are directly paid product placements, but many are factory-backed by manufacturers who provide technical assistance and vehicles during production. [65]

Apparel and accessories

Tom Ford has included brand integration to elevate its fashion brand Skyfall , [66] music from Jay Z’s Magna Carta , [67] and television shows like Empire . [68]

Consumer electronics and computers

Apple’s products frequently appear in movies, music videos and on television. Apple has stated that they do not pay for this; Some Apple placements may have come from the brand’s position as a status symbol rather than actual paid promotion. [69] By the same token, Pixar films have often featured references to Apple products, but these are an homage to the involvement of its founder, Steve Jobs , an early investor in the studio. [70]

The 2010 Modern Family episode ” Game Changer ” prominently featured the iPad and aired prior to its launch, while the 2015 episode ” Connection Lost ” is presented entirely from the perspective of a character’s Macintoshlaptop, conducting communications between the rest of her family via Apple’s FaceTime and iMessage services. Show creator Steven Levitan said they had an ongoing relationship with Apple, but did not elaborate further. In the case of the trainer, while the episode’s credits were made available by Apple, the company did not pay for the ABC broadcasterfor the integration, nor any commercial time during the episode [71] [72]

Owning to its common ownership, Sony Pictures has featured placements of Sony consumer electronics products, especially Sony Xperia smartphones , among other products. The James Bond films Skyfall and Spectrumprominently feature placements of the Sony Xperia T and Sony Xperia Z5 smartphones respectively, and Sony released editions of the T and Xperia Z5 Compact that were branded as tie-ins for the movies. [73] [74] [75] [76]

In video games, the most common placements are for processors or graphics cards. For example, in EA ‘s Battlefield 2142 , ads for Intel Core 2 processors appear on map billboards. EA’s The Sims contains in-game advertising for Intel and McDonald’s . Rare ‘s Perfect Dark Zero features many ads for Samsung in their menus. [77]

Food and beverage

The use of Reese’s plays a prominent plot element in the movie ET The Extra-Terrestrial was the result of a sponsorship deal; It was Originally Intended for the titular character’s favorite food to be M & Ms candies, purpose Mars, Incorporated turned down an offer. The Hershey Company took the sponsorship instead, which included the rights for the company to cross-promote Reese’s Pieces with the movie. The deal was considered a major blow for the company; sales of Reese’s Pieces tripled, and some retailers had trouble meeting demand for the product. [78]

Alongside criticism for driving the popularity of ET , the movie Mac and Me was widely-criticized for the contents of investments for Coca-Cola soft drinks and the McDonald’s fast food chain ; both brands are integral to the movie’s plot, while McDonald’s mascot Ronald McDonald makes a show on a dance scene at McDonald’s, and is credited as appearing in the movie “as himself”. Critics also noted that the name of the alien creature featured in the film, “Mac,” could also be referred to the notable burger chain, the Big Mac . [79] [80] [81]Its producer RJ Louis denied that the film was funded by McDonald’s; He Had Previously Worked it campaigns for the company and wanted to make a movie That Would help benefit the Ronald McDonald House Charities , and Had to Pursue rights to portray the McDonald’s brand in the film (Noting That he was “still the only person in the That’s the only way they’ve been to the McDonalds trademark, their actors, their characters, and the company. “), but did receive funding from one of the chain’s major suppliers, Golden State Foods . He also explained the extended dance scene, and his trip to McDonald’s was often seen as a “treat” for children of the era, and explained that “Mac” was meant to be an acronym for ”


Tobacco companies have made direct payment for their cigarettes in movies. Sylvester Stallone received US $ 500,000 to “use Brown and Williamson tobacco products in five feature films”. [83] [84] [85]

In response to a Christian Science Monitor article [86] , the Tobacco Institute claims that the product placement is driven by filmmakers to “achieve desired artistic effects and offset production costs.” also claimed “the 1970 federal ban on cigarette advertising on television and radio does not prohibit payments to filmmakers for the use of cigarettes in a film.” at the filmmaker’s discretion. [87]


Many airlines have advertised prominently in film, in some cases to promote or increase the public awareness of the airline company. Pan American World Airways advertised on many movies, James Bond ones. American AirlinesWas it advertised Home Alone and Home Alone 2 , and a model of a Virgin Atlantic Boeing 747 Was shown in Wayne’s World .

United Airlines was mentioned in the title of the United 93 movie ; this movie, however, was based on a real life event .

Radio, television and publishing


List of television shows with the most instances of product placement (November 2007 – 2008; according to Nielsen Media Research)

  • The Biggest Loser – 6.248
  • American Idol – 4,636
  • Extreme Makeover: Home Edition – 3,371
  • America’s Toughest Jobs – 2,807
  • One Tree Hill – 2,575
  • Deal or No Deal – 2,292
  • America’s Next Top Model – 2,241
  • Last Comic Standing – 1.993
  • Kitchen Nightmares – 1,853
  • Hell’s Kitchen – 1,807

Nielsen has called Expired szene in an episode of CBS ‘ Mike & Molly of Mike eating M & M’s in Carl’s apartment in 2013’s best branded and opinion-shifting product integration in a scripted show. [88]

Video sharing website

Youtubers are allowed to do product placement. For instance, the LinusTechTips channel by Linus Sebastian [89] . Notifying YouTube is required [90] , and YouTube reserves the right to ban it [91] .

Legal considerations

United States

Much of US broadcast Law Pertaining to on-air product promotional dates to the payola scandals of 1950s radio broadcast. An investigation lancé in November 1959 into allegations That Some radio DJs HAD accepted scraps in return for radio airplay [92] ended with a US $ 2,500 fine for disc jockey Alan Freed (of WABC and WINS ) for Violating bribery trading laws. On September 13, 1960, the US government banned payola in broadcasting. Under 47 USC  § 317″Any matter broadcast by any station for which money, service, or other valuable consideration is directly or indirectly paid, or promised to or charged by, the station so broadcasting, from any person, shall, at the time n broadcast, be announced as paid for or furnished, as the case May be, by Such person … “with similar and related provisions reflected in Federal Communications Commission regulations as 47 CFR 73.1212 . [93]

These provisions were subsequently investigated, including a 2005 investigation into Sony BMG and other major record companies. [94]

Often, a broadcaster claimed to place an inconspicuous place, such as embedded within the credits. [95] In 2005 US Federal Communications Commission commissioned Jonathan Adelstein stated “if broadcasters and cable TVcompanies insist on further commercializing new and other shows, that is their business.” payola, and that is the FCC’s business. ” [96]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom , placement by commercial broadcasters was forbidden prior to 2011. On February 28, 2011, telecommunications regulator Ofcom Legalized Investments in Certain Types of Programming. A placement must be “editorially justified” and not place “undue prominence” on the product. Product placements are not allowed for products, canned baby, baby products, medication or junk food. Investments are not allowed during children ‘s, news, public affairs and religious programs. In addition, broadcasters must disclose placements on-air by displaying a “PP” icon on-screen for the program for at least three seconds at the beginning, after every commercial break, and at the end. The first legal product placement on British television is an episode of this morning , for a Nestlé -produced coffee maker . As with all other advertising, the BBC is using investments on its publicly funded services. [97] [98]

Extreme examples

Mac and Me is notorious for its investments. Both Coca-Cola and McDonald’s backed the movie viable financially, leading to investments for ’em as well as others, Such As Skittles and Sears in Nearly every stage, Including an infamously irrelevant dance number set in a McDonald’s restaurant as well as a character Who wears a McDonald’s uniform goes through the whole movie, even when she is not at work.

I, Robot offers placements for Converse , Ovaltine , Audi , FedEx , Dos Equis and JVC among others, all of them within the film’s first ten minutes. One moment includes a straightforward advertisement in which Will Smith ‘s character responds to a compliment about his shoes, to which he replies “Converse All – Stars, vintage 2004” [99] (the year of the film’ s release). Audi created a special car for the movie, the Audi RSQ . Surveys conducted in the US showed that the investments boosted the brand’s image. [100]The Audi RSQ appears for nine minutes, and other Audis also appear in the movie. [101] I, Robotwas ranked “the worst film for product placement” on British site. [102]

Demolition Man Makes heavy mention of the only remaining restaurant chain Taco Bell being white (in the US release) or Pizza Hut (in the European release).

The Island features at least 35 individual products or brands, including cars, bottled water , shoes, credit cards, beer, ice cream, and a web search engine . [103] [104] In the movie’s DVD Commentary track, director Michael Bayclaims he added the advertisements for greater realism. [105]

The 2006 comedy movie Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby parodied the large amount of sponsorship in NASCAR . For example, Ricky Bobby thanks baby Jesus for certain products during dinner parties, due to contractual obligations. In one race, he drives his car with a giant Fig Newtons sticker on his windshield, which obscures his vision. A scene where Ricky’s and Jean Girard’s go to an Applebee’s commercial (referencing NBC’s use of commercial breaks during its own coverage). [106]

Josie and the Pussycats contains placements in most of the shots. This article turns out to be ironically, as the plot of the film revolves around subliminal messages in advertising. The film’s general message can also be construed as an anti-consumerist one. The film neither sought nor received compensation for investments.

The 2009 Star Trek , in a scene where young James Kirk drives and crashes a Chevrolet Corvette , he operates a Nokia touch-screen smartphone. Before the race is over, the distinctive Nokia trademark ring tone can be heard. The Finnish phone maker offered Star Trek apps for their phones. The use of contemporary products was ridiculed, as the scene is set in the year 2255. [107]

The 2013 Filipino film My Little Bossings attracted criticism for its extensive use of product placement. Reviewers panned the film for being “one long commercial”, where advertisements for brands are often involved in the film. [108] [109] Zig Marasigan of Rapper describes the film’s use of product endorsements as “some of the most distasteful examples of local product placement while no effort is made to weave them into the narrative.” [110]

In a similar vein to early radio and television programs, the Philippines are not uncommon, where children’s programs like Tropang Potchi and Jollitown are produced on behalf of companies, prominently featuring products and related properties in the shows in question.

Viewer response

In April 2009, fans of the television series Chuck responded to a placement by Subway restaurants with a grassroots effort to save the show from cancellation. [111] The movement bracket Gained from cast and crew, with series star Zachary Levi leading Hundreds of fans to a Subway restaurant in Birmingham , United Kingdom . [112] [113] [114] [115] [116]


Continued investment to grow, despite consumer groups such as Commercial Affair to the Practice as an Affront to Basic Honesty. The group requested disclosure of all product-placement It justifies this to allow parents to protect children. [117]

In 2005, the Writers Guild of America , a trade union of authors of television scripts, objected that its members were forced to produce disguised ad copy. [118]

Some scholars argue that product placement may inherently affect the creativity and originality of movies as film producers may re-write scripts in order to incorporate products. [119] Most typically, product placement and merchandise are the most successful among specific genres of movies. [119]



As with most marketing tactics, product placement leads to the implicit advertising effects. Explicit effects can be observed directly and are usually visible by higher recall scores. [120] [121] They are highly connected to the conscious mind. [122] Implicit effects can be observed by a change in behavior – like a higher purchase intention.[120][123][124] They are fully based on the subconscious mind.[120][125] Implicit effects are more relevant for purchase decisions and therefore more valuable than explicit reactions.[120][125]


Recall the description of a person after the product. There is a significant relationship between product placement and recall. [126] [127] [128] [129]


Product placement also leads to changes in attitude towards the product or brand. [130] [131] [132] [133]

Purchase intention

A lot of research has shown a higher purchase of money. [134] [135] [136] [137] [138]

Subconscious effects

Product placement affects the audience on a conscious, but also subconscious level. Science showed that there does not even need to be an explicit, conscious effect to activate subconscious effects.[135][139][140][141] For example, product placement can lead to an exclusion of competing brands from the consideration set of the audience – subconsciously.[120][142] It is also hoped to bypass advertising defense reactions of consumers by focusing on the subconscious character of product placement.[121]

Negative effects

Under the circumstances, product placement may lead to no [143] [144] [145] or even negative effects. [130] [144] [146] [147] This usually happens if the product placement is too obvious, while the audience also feels to be manipulated. [121] [144] [147]

Placement moderators


The better the product placement fits the surrounding content, the better the implicit effectiveness (like attitude or purchase-intention) will be. [133] [148] [149] [150]

Audio vs visual

After viewing a Seinfeld episode with visual, auditory and audiovisual product placements, a recall task indicated that audiovisual product placements were recalled the best, visual product placements somewhat less and audio placements least. In a recognition test audiovisual was still remembered the best but audio placements were remembered second best and visual placements were remembered third best.[135] As indicated, the type of placement that is most effective seems to vary depending on task, but audiovisual placements seem to be often the most effective.[151] However, audiovisual product placements are not remembered best when there are more than one audiovisual placement at once, making it hard to remember each one.[126] In case the placement is only on the audio level, one should make sure it is very prominent to get any effect at all.[127][144][152]

Character attractiveness

People tended to like brand names that were paired with attractive faces more than those paired with unattractive faces. The more times a brand was paired with an attractive face, the more people liked it.[153]

Product prominence

Product placement perceived to disrupt a movie, especially when repeated, were found in one study to be counterproductive. Moderate repetition of subtle product placements did not increase people’s feelings on distraction.[154]

Products that are integrated within the plot of a movie are better recall, although not if more than one product is shown at a time.[126] In one study placements connected to the story were recognized most often, products used by the main character were remembered less often and products in the background were remembered least often.[138]

Placements were found more effective on a larger screen compared to on a smaller one.[126] Also, products placed in the first half of a movie tend to be remembered better than products in the second half of a movie, which demonstrates the primacy effect.[126]

Level of Involvement

High involvement with the program makes it easier for people to recognize the product placement.[155][156] This can lead to positive effects,[157][158] but might also lead to negative reactions.[159] The same applies for high product category involvement.[160]

Audience demographics

Cultural attributes

Older research cited a difference between different cultural areas. For example, Australians,[161] Austrians.[162] and Germans[163][164] tended to evaluate product placement more critical and show less positive reactions than Americans or people from certain Asian countries such as India.[165][166][167]


Children are usually easier influenced than adults.[168][169][170]


If the product is a person, there are stronger priming effects if the audience has the same sex. [171] Women tend to get a little easier, [172] [173] but they are more likely to be questionable (eg alcohol). [174]


To measure the success of product placement, one first tracks the parameters of the placement itself, like the ease of identification, screen time, number of exposure(s), or association with a main character. That information is also often used to determine the price of a specific placement. Secondly, the effectiveness is measured using direct (for explicit memory effects) as well as indirect (for implicit memory effects) measurements.

Measurement of the explicit memory

Explicit effects are measured by recall or recognition tests. These are the subjects that he or she notices ( free recall ). [120] [175] This survey can also be used in the past. [143] At the time of the interview, who did not know who he was? [145] [151]

Measurement of the implicit memory

Implicit effects are measured in an indirect way by observing a change in behavior.[120][176] This can be done by tracking the consideration set and buying behavior of people,[120][123][124] measuring brain activities[177] or using abstract indirect test settings like the word fragment or word stem completion test.[178] The implicit association test (IAT) is also an applicable measurement tool.[179][180]


Many argue that product placement is ethically questionable, because it manipulates them against their will. [137] [181] [182] [183] A contrary view is, even if product placement is only unconsciously perceived, it is still evaluated by our mind. [184] [185] It can not make people act against their beliefs. Most people also appreciate the fact that movies look more realistic with real brands and do not feel disturbed by the investments. [186] [187] further, further research argues that product placement is not any different from other marketing tactics when it comes to ethics. [146]