Animated cartoon

An animated cartoon is a film for the cinema , television or computer screen, which is made using sequential drawings , [Note 1] as opposed to animations in general, which include movies made using clay , puppet and other means. Animated cartoons are still created for commercial, educational, [1] and personal purposes.


Main article: History of animation

Early years

Early occurrences of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion in the field of painting , where they are often depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion. [2]

The phenakistoscope (1832), Zoetrope (1834) and praxinoscope (1877), as well as the common flip book , Were early entertainment devices to Produce movement from sequential drawings using technological means clustering, goal Did not Develop further Top up to the advent of motion picture movie .

Silent era

The first animated projection (screening) was created in France, by Charles-Émile Reynaud , who was a French science teacher. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Optical Theater in December 1888. [3] On 28 October 1892, he projected the first animation in public, Poor Pierrot , at the Grévin Museum in Paris. This film is also notable for the first instance of film perforations being used. His films were not photographed, but drawn directly onto the transparent strip. [4] In 1900, more than 500,000 people had attended these screenings.

The first (photographed) animated projection was Humorous Phases of Funny Faces (1906) by newspaper cartoonist J. Stuart Blackton , [5] one of the co-founders of the Vitagraph Company arrived. [6] In the film, a cartoonist’s line drawings of two faces were ‘animated’ (or came to life) on a blackboard. The two faces smiled and winked, and the cigarette-smoking man blew smoke in the lady’s face; also, circus clown led to a small dog to jump through a hoop.

The first animated projection in the traditional sense (ie, one motion picture movie ) Was Haunting by the French director Émile Cohl in 1908. [7] Reviews This was Followed by two more films, The Nightmare puppet [ The Puppet’s Nightmare , now lost ] A puppet drama [ A Puppet Drama, called The Love Affair in Toyland for American Release and Mystical Love-Making for British release], all completed in 1908.

One of the very first successful animated cartoons was Gertie the Dinosaur (1914) by Winsor McCay . [8] It is considered the first example of true character animation . At first, animated cartoons were black-and-white and silent. Felix the Cat and Oswald Lucky Rabbit are notable examples. [9]

“Golden Age”

From the 1920s to 1960s, theatrical cartoons were produced in huge numbers, and usually shown before a film feature in a movie theater. Disney (distributed by Pat Powers , then Columbia , then United Artists , then RKO , then independently), Fleischer (distributed by Paramount ), Warner Bros. , MGM , and UPA (distributed by Columbia ) were the largest studios producing these 5- to 10-minute “shorts.” Other studios included Walter Lantz (distributed by Universal ), DePatie-Freleng(distributed by United Artists ), Charles Mintz Studios (later Screen Gems ) (distributed by Columbia ), Famous Studios (distributed by Paramount ), and Terrytoons (distributed by 20th Century Fox).

The first cartoon to use a soundtrack Was in 1926 with Max Fleischer ‘s My Old Kentucky Home . However, the Fleischers used a Forest sound system and the sound was not completely synchronized with the film. [10] Walt Disney’s 1928 cartoon Steamboat Willie starring Mickey Mouse Was the first to use a click track During the recording session, qui Produced better synchronism . ” Mickey Mousing ” became an action for any movie (animated or live action)) that was perfectly synchronized with music. The music used is most of the time, but musical quotation is often employed. Animated characters usually performed in “loops,” ie, drawings were repeated over and over.

Although other producers had made films earlier using 2-strip color, Disney produced the first cartoon in 3-strip Technicolor , Flowers and Trees , in 1932. Technicians at the Fleischer studio invented rotoscoping , in which animators trace live action in order to make animation look more realistic. However, rotoscoping made the animation look stiff and the technique was rather used for studying human and animal movement, rather than directly tracing and copying filmed movements. [11]

Later, other movie technologies were adapted for use in such multiplane cameras with The Old Mill (1937), [12] stereophonic sound in Fantasia (1940), widescreen processes with the feature-length Lady and the Tramp (1955), and even 3D with Lumber Jack-Rabbit . [13]

Today, traditional animation uses traditional methods, but is aided by computers in certain areas. This Gives the animator new tools not available That could not be Achieved using old techniques.

Feature films

In 1917, Italian-Argentine cartoonist Quirino Cristiani created the first ever animated feature, El Apóstol , utilizing cutout animation; however, a fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle’s film studio incinerated the only known copy of the film, and it is now considered lost . [14]

In 1937, Disney created the first sound and color animated film feature, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs . [15]

The name “animated cartoon” is generally used when referring to full-length animated productions, since the term more or less implies a “short.” Huge numbers of animated feature films were, and are still, produced.


Competition from television drew audiences away from movie theaters in the late 1950s, and the theatrical cartoon began its decline. Today, animated cartoons for American audiences are mostly produced for television.

American television animation of the 1950s featured quite limited animation styles, highlighted by the work of Jay Ward on Crusader Rabbit . [16] Chuck Jones co-edited the term “illustrated radio” to refer to the style of television, which is more important than soundtracks than visuals. [17] Other notable 1950s programs include UPA ‘s Gerald McBoing Boing , [18] Hanna-Barbera ‘s Huckleberry Hound and Quick Draw McGraw , [16] and rebroadcast of Many classic theatrical cartoons from Universal ‘sWalter Lantz , Warner Bros. , MGM , and Disney .

The Hanna-Barbera cartoon, The Flintstones , was the first successful primetime animated series in the United States, running from 1960 to 1966 (and in reruns since). [19] While Many networks Followed the show’s success by scheduling other cartoons in the early 1960s, Including Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! The Jetsons , Top Cat , and The Alvin Show , none of these programs survived more than a year (save Scooby-Doo, which, despite being a primetime cartoon, has managed to stay afloat for over four decades). However, networks found success by running these shows as Saturday morning cartoons, reaching smaller audiences with more demographic unity among children. Television Animation for children Flourished on Saturday morning, one cable channels like Nickelodeon , Disney Channel / Disney XD and Cartoon Network , PBS Kids , and in syndicated afternoon timeslots.

The scheduling constraints of the TV animation process, particularly issues of resource management, led to the development of various techniques known as limited animation . Full-frame animation (“on ones”) has become rare in its use outside theatrical productions in the United States.

Primetime cartoons for mature audiences Were Virtually non-existent in the mainstream of the United States up to the 1990s hit, When The Simpsons ushered in a new era of adult entertainment . Now, “adult animation” programs, such as Aeon Flux , Beavis and Butt-head , South Park , Family Guy , The Cleveland Show , American Dad! Bob’s Burgers , Aqua Teen Hunger Force , and Futuramahave increased the number of animated sitcoms on prime-time and evening American television. In addition, there have been some differences in the airplay of the United States since the 1960s.

Commercial animation

Animation has been very popular in television commercials, both due to its graphic appeal, and the humor it can provide. Some animated characters in commercials have survived for decades, such as Snap, Crackle and Pop in advertisements for Kellogg’s cereals.

In 1957, “Louie the Fly” made the first appearance on Australian television as the cartoon antagonist for Mortein, an Australian brand of household insecticide and was drawn by Geoffry Morgan Pike. In a jingle created by Bryce Courtenay, it has been used in TV commercials since 1962, he proudly sings of his own dirtiness, claiming to be afraid of no-one except “the man with the can of Mortein.” quote needed ]

The legendary animation director Tex Avery was the producer of the first Raid ” Dead Kills Bugs ” commercial in 1966, which were very successful for the company. The concept has been used in many countries since.

See also

  • Animation
  • Computer animation
  • Cartoon
  • Traditional animation
  • List of animated short series
  • List of animated television series
  • List of animated feature-length films
  • List of animation studios


  1. Jump up^ This method is also called traditional animation creation method.
  2. Jump up^ PhenakistoscopeMachine Was invented by Joseph Plateau



  1. Jump up^ Dalacostaa 2009, p. 1.
  2. Jump up^ Thomas 1958, p. 8.
  3. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, pp. 3-4.
  4. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, pp. 5-6.
  5. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, pp. 7-8.
  6. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, p. 16.
  7. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, p. 9.
  8. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, pp. 16-17.
  9. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, pp. 55, 59.
  10. Jump up^ Maltin 1980, p. 89.
  11. Jump up^ Thomas 1958, pp. 142-145.
  12. Jump up^ Maltin 1980, p. 51.
  13. Jump up^ Maltin 1980, p. 265.
  14. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, pp. 49-51.
  15. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, pp. 66-67.
  16. ^ Jump up to:b Bendazzi 1994 , p. 234.
  17. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, p. 231.
  18. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, pp. 131-132.
  19. Jump up^ Bendazzi 1994, p. 235.


  • Barrier, J. Michael (1999). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age . New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN  0-19-503759-6 .
  • Bendazzi, Giannalberto (1994). Cartoons: One Hundred Years of Cinema Animation . Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN  0-253-20937-4 .
  • Dalacostaa; Kamariotaki-Paparrigopouloub; Palyvosa; Spyrellisa (2009). “Multimedia application with animated cartoons for teaching science in elementary education” . Computers & Education . 52 : 741-748 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
  • Maltin, Leonard (1980). Of Mice and Magic: A History of American Animated Cartoons . New York: Feather. ISBN  0-452-25993-2 .
  • Stabile, Carol (2003). Harrison, Mark, ed. Prime Time Animation: Animation Television and American Culture . London: Routledge. ISBN  0-415-28326-4 .
  • Stephenson, Ralph (1973). The Animated Movie . London: Tantivity Press. ISBN  0-498-01202-6 .
  • Thomas, Bob (1958). Walt Disney, the Art of Animation: The Story of the Studio Disney Contribution to a New Art . Walt Disney Studios . Simon and Schuster.