Closing credits or end credits are a list of the cast and crew of a Particular motion picture , television program , or video game . Where opening credits appear at the beginning of a work, closing credits appear close to, or at the end of a work. A full set of credits may include the cast and crew, but also production sponsors, distribution companies, and various legal disclaimers, such as copyright and more. Some long-running productions list ” production babies “.
The closing credits are usually typed and appearing in white lettering on a solid black background, with no sound effects or dialogue, only a musical background, sometimes the works’ theme music . Credits are either static and flip from page to page, or scroll as a single list from the bottom of the screen to the top. Occasionally closing credits will be included in this direction, including illustrations , extra scenes, bloopers , joke credits and post-credits scenes .
American film until the 1970s. Before this decade, most movies are released with no closing credits at all. Films generally had the credits of the cast and crew of the cast and crew, and they would be shown in the end, as in The Wizard of Oz , Mary Poppins , Oliver! and the 1964 Fail Safe . Two of the first major films to contain the vast closing credits – but almost no opening credits – were the blockbusters Around the World in 80 Days (1956) and West Side Story(1961). West Side Story shown only at the beginning of the film, and Around the World in 80 Days , like many movies today, had no opening credits at all.
Around the World in 80 Days (1956). The credits took around seven minutes to finish. It provided an animated recap of the movie’s three-hour storyline, identifying the actors in the order in which they appeared. Superman also had a very long closing credits sequence, which took up nearly eight minutes to end, and was the longest end credits ever recorded at the time of the film’s release.  The 2016 movie Assassin ‘s Creed end credits is also very long – it takes nearly 15 minutes to end.
Although, some live action / animated films , Space Jam (1996), Scooby-Doo (2002) and The Lego Movie (2014).
The British television series Spooks does not feature any credits, as a result of a decision made by the producers to add to the anonymity of the show’s content (about the British Security Service). Instead, the credits appear as a special feature on the DVDs series, and also on the official website. Similarly, the British series Jam (2000) features a single title at the end of only “jamcredits.com”.
As in motion pictures, most television programs [ quote needed ]
Some closing credits include out-takes . Sometimes a parting is finalized after the credits as a final joke. For example, in Ferris Bueller ‘s Day Off , Ferris appears and breaks the fourth wall to say “You’ re still here? … It ‘s over! Go home!” The Zucker, Abrahams and Zucker movie spoof-have included producing members, credits unrelated to the movie ( “Author of A Tale of Two Cities – Charles Dickens “), cooking recipes and song lyrics In Their closing credits, while Monty Pythonmovies have included credits for ridiculous and non-existent production staff. On Some occasions, the filmmakers will have character-have come back and pop in DURING THE credits to see the goings-on (a Noted example is Finding Nemo , in qui Several characters interact with the credits as if They Were physical objects). In a special episode of the motoring show Top Gear , the credits are comedically altered in ways appropriate for the episode: for example, in the American special, the first names of all the cast and crew were listed as “Billy Bob”. The South Park episode ” Trapped in the Closet ” featured in the credits, Critical of Scientology , ends with Stan Marshyelling “Okay, good! Do it! I’m not scared of you! Sue me!” The credits then list every member of every position as either ” John ” or “Jane Smith”. Another noteworthy example is Daffy Duck appearing in Gremlins 2: The New Batch complaining about how long they run. On other occasions additional scenes to advance the storyline (Such As in Wild Things and Pirates of the Caribbean: At World’s End ), influenced gold guide the viewers to a feasible outcome of the movie’s conclusion (Such As in WALL-E ) or set up sequels (such as Transformers and Iron Man) may occur after the credits roll. In the case of the Rebuild of Evangelion , the film is one of those films that have been published. The closing credits for the extended edition of The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King -have sketches of the characters and the actors Who portrayed em.
Sometimes the closing credits of comedy films include footage of bloopers that produced during production. Most Jackie Chan movies include these. The practice was parodied in the Pixar movies A Bug’s Life , Toy Story 2 , and Monsters, Inc. which feature specially-animated bloopers that portray the movies’ animated characters as actors who make mistakes.
On Father’s Day , Big Brother UK credits everyone with their father’s name. For example, Steve Jones would be billed as “Adam Jones’s”. The 2006 movie Clerks 2 by Kevin Smith Smith’s “friends network” on MySpace in the film’s release. The very long list of credits (in multi-column format) has had some effect in the making of the film. [ quote needed ]Upon the movie ‘s release, Smith announced that he would continue the DVD credits when the film was released on DVD, which he did. On the 1969-1974 version of Beat the Clock , the closing credits are known as a “boss list”: the executive producer, for example, was the “Super Boss”, the producer, “Boss”, the stunt coordinator “Stunt Boss “and the host’s assistant” Pretty Girl Boss “.
Marginalization for television promotion
On American television, the time the viewers looked at the closing credit is often considered an opportunity to promote other shows on the network. Typically, this has been accomplished by the publication of the closing remarks of the audience, while announcing them on the following list of voices: “Stay tuned” for the following show. Examples included Ernie Anderson is ABC , Alan Kalter is USA Network up to 1996, Phil Tonken we WOR-TV (now WWOR-TV ) in New York City , and various Cartoon Network voiceovers are Cartoon Network up to 2008. To help AVOID cacophonywith the theme song, most American television series produced since 1970, few, if any, vocals in the closing music. As advanced technology, however, networks decided to replace the voice-overs with full-blown visual promos. Before the 1970s, there are many sponsor logos / tags that was featured in its original credits network broadcast runs.
In the United States, a split-screened version of the program is known in the United States as “credits”, “split-screen credits”, “squeezed credits” or “credit crunch” .  NBC launched this practice in the fall of 1994 with a strategy called “NBC 2000,” which was designed to keep viewers from channel-surfing. All NBC shows this practice, except for Days of Our Lives, which would be switch in 2002. At that time, the credits were displayed on the right side of the screen, using a typeface on all shows that differs from the one used in the closing off credits of each individual program (hence the common nickname ” generic credits “), with” promo-tainment “(vintage scenes, trivia questions, etc.) on the left side or, for shows like Friends or Frasier , a tag sequence. Shortly after its adoption, the network shifted from “promo-tainment” to just airing promos for other NBC programming.  All major commercial broadcast networks (ABC, NBC, CBS , Fox and The CW) use this format; in mid-2004, Fox was the first major network to shift its credits to the lower one-quarter screen, and by the end of that year, ABC and NBC followed suit. In 2005, CBS, The WB , UPN (and, when it launched the following year, The CW ) began shifting credits to the lower quarter of the screen. By the early 2000s, the use of “generic credits” began to spread to cable ; MOST channels owned by the MTV Networks unit of Viacom (Including MTV , VH1 , Nickelodeon and Comedy Central ), Lifetime and Lifetime Movie Network(though in June 2011, BBC America and ABC News) type of format. Since 2009, premium television services Showtime aussi uses generic closing credits we icts original series, and is the only premium channel to use this format. Nickelodeon channels (except Nick Jr.) and until recently ABCs have been removed from the show.CBS later adapting this practice, replacing tag sequences (for its sitcoms) with promos beginning late 1994. When ABC adapted this practice in 1995, they first used the promo on the bottom, except for sitcoms, 1996, ABC sitcoms started using the trend.
On some shows, the credits are reduced to rapid-fire crawl, or quick-flashing cards; in some cases, each credit would appear on-screen for less than one second (a prime example is at the end of each episode of Survivor , in which there is a rapid credit-crawl in the contestant’s closing speech). Sometimes a promo would run faster than the normal time it would take to run the credits at normal speed. Thus, the credits even “sped-up” (a prime example of this is NBC’s showing of Titanic , in which there are so many credits to be shown in so little time that credits switched almost every frame, making it impossible for anyone to read, even with a slow motion capability – andThe Biggest Loser , especially during the final season episodes). Starting with the 2004 season, ABC airs its closing credits of its sitcoms at the bottom of the screen, during the closing scene in a format that keeps in line with the network’s generic credits look. These credits, however, do not seem to be more important than they are in their prime-time programs, except for promotional consideration. In other words, the credits are superimposed on the closing scene in the same way as the original studio credits.
Most daytime soap operas used closing credits for many years. Most of the shows aired during the week (eg, Monday through Thursday) would be just one of the main actors and actresses. However, given the large number of people involved in the production of each serial, a full cast and crew credit crawl could last three minutes or longer. Because of this, an expanded credit roll would probably be at least a week, such as the Friday show, [ citation needed ]with the closing theme often an expanded version of the show’s opening music. Starting in 1999, soap operas began eliminating the full-screen crawl in favor of the one-third screen credits / promo combination. While NBC, ABC and CBS soaps all use the upper portion of the screen to show advertisements for primetime programming, ABC soaps Showed previews for the next episode up to 2008 and intermittently since then (the network’s lone remaining soap, General Hospital , Currently runs an episode preview during the end credits). In comparison, daytime soaps rerun on SOAPnet until the channel shut down in 2013 continued to use full-screen credits. Around Christmas time, ABC soaps formally aired holiday-themed credits, which do not feature network promotions; One Life to Live, in particular, scrolled the credits over a shot of Christmas tree (this practice ended around 2011). CBS also offers free-themed credits that also do not feature network promotions; Christmas tree, a fire burning in the fireplace in the background, etc., complete with a random Christmas music and a break with the breaking of the fourth The time of the second quarter of the year (since the late 2000s, the last element has been played before and after the credit sequence).
Daytime game shows worked in much the same vein as soap operas. A shorter version might be one or two people involved with the production, along with such plugs as for prizes and wardrobe providers. At least one ounce a week, a full-length credit would be the main theme of the contest (with the camera). By the mid-1990s, The Price Is Right The Last Daytime Game Show, and it would eventually switch to marginalized credits, starting in the fall of 1999. Go , The New $ 25,000 Pyramid , both the Dick Clark and John Davidsonversions of The $ 100,000 Pyramid , the original version of Beat the Clock , To Tell the Truth , Password , What’s My Line? The Bill Cullen TheVersion of The Price is Right and the original Mike Adamle version of American Gladiators from the second half of the first season to the end of the run series. The original Game Match had the credits scrolling up the bottom of the screen; the 1970s version of the game had the credits scrolling up bottom-to-top during Match Game ’73 and right-to-left starting withGame Game ’74 and including Match Game PM and the syndicated version from 1979 to 1982. Goodson-Todman’s Double Dare place the credits on the main game board to show off the state-of-the-art electronic display board. Sometimes on that show, the camera zoomed into the game board before the credits began. On the original daytime Wheel of Fortune in the 1970s and 1980s Wheel of the Wheel, the credits always began with a list of sponsors over a shot of the Wheel.
Some cable channels have used credits to the end of one show and the beginning of the following program. TNT and TBS had formerly run the program in small (sometimes illegible) type at the bottom of the screen while another one of the same program began. Similarly on networks like E! and formerly Style Network, the program-to-program transition is seamless; to do this, usually on the bottom of a screen, usually on the bottom of the screen, small, translucent type. The closing credits for the program being seen at that time; for other purposes, or the use of a double-box or generic credit format, the closing credits for the preceding program. A few networks such as Nick at Nite , Comedy Central, Logo and TV LandIn their network-generated credits (in the box of Nick at Nite from 2010 to 2011, this was done only when the closing date is shown at the beginning of an episode of a show during back-to-back airings of the most series, while a promo / generic credit combo followed by the production company credits are shown at the end of the last episode of a show back-to-back block; common parlance since 2012 as the credits are now superimposed on the final scene of the episode for certain programs).
Often, the network-to-local transition entre les end of the network ‘s primetime schedule and late local on broadcast news networks will feature the network show credits on the bottom of the screen, while the local news teasersequence, identification station , news opening, and then the top story will take place. Once the credits end, the local news broadcast zoom in the screen, creating a seamless hand-off. [ Citation needed ] DESPITE Some objections by television producing unions, some programs, Such As Those That air is Discovery Networks and the US release of the National Geographic Channelonly air the credits during a program premiere broadcast, referring viewers to a website to view the credits in subsequent broadcasts. [ quote needed ]
Some networks, Such As GSN ,-have Even Begun cutting off the credits Before They finish, Most Likely to allow more time for commercials , [ citation needed ] though GSN Has Begun to squeeze the producing company closing credits to the bottom third of the screen and show the entire credits during that time; Spike (only on its original programming and some syndicated shows), Oxygen and Hallmark Channel also squeeze the production company credits to the lower third of the screen. Some cable channels mix of generic use and the actual generation company credits DEPENDING on the show, ABC Family airs generic credits Currently we MOST Acquired programswhere most episodes have no tagged scene, while acquired programs where most episodes do feature one, the tag scene and / or production company credits are aired full-screen, and since June 2010, the channel’s original series have the closing credits overlaid on the final scene of the episode (though these were separated by their website and VOD service until 2012).
Until 2011, Hallmark Hall of Fame series in 2011, the original credits were aired; the ending promo would be shown first, then the original closing credits. When the Hallmark Fame Hall of Fame moved to ABC in 2011 starting with the telecast of Have a Little Faith , with the advent of ABCs on credits, the network was using marginalized closing credits being played concurrently with the ending promo; as a result, original closing credits are no longer seen on original airings, and must be first seen on the DVD release or the Hallmark Channel rebroadcast.
Also, UPN used the announcer overlapping studio’s logo and sounds over that logos before split-screen credits from UPN programming.
The WB Television Network used the studio’s logo and sounds with no voiceover up until 2004. Fox Broadcasting Company does the same thing up until 2000, while programming produced by 20th Century Fox Television featured the Fox drumbeat over the Fox logo from 1997 to 2000.
Steven Bochco ‘s shows aired on their major networks featured Steven Bochco’ s own logo theme instead of generic music theme.
Notable exceptions in regard to television productions
Full closing credits are still being produced by the production company and are used in the context of a program, and are always seen if the program is released as a DVD box set, is broadcast via video on demand or is streamed online through the network’s website. websites such as Hulu or Netflix that specializes in airing television programs. For the latter, newer versions of each streaming provider’s interfaces may encourage the continuous binge-watching of series, thus the credits (which are often extended with foreign dub localizations and subtitle providers also being acknowledged) are in favor of a smaller window, presenting the choice to watch credits in full, or a new recommended movie.
Many animated shows still maintain and air the full version of the credits.
From 1989 to 1994, CBS and from 1993 to 1996, ABC displayed the show’s closing credits produced by the production company in a two-panel format, with the current production credits chroma-keyed to shove to one side of the screen with a video promo for other network programming on the other side (CBS displayed the show’s closing credits on the left and on the right side of the screen in a two-panel format of the screen); Since the late 2000s, there has been a trend of cable channels using this credit display format, usually shown in a vertical or (usually) horizontal double-boxformat similar to that used in television news toss to and from field reports. Ion Television is the only commercial broadcast network using a dual-box format; all others using this format are Disney XD , BET , Syfy , USA Network , WGN America , most of the Turner networks, such as TBS , TNT and at times Cartoon Network , during syndicated programming only on G4 and TruTV. In some cases, the show credits at full-screen in time for the production company logos at the end of the credit sequence; a few channels such as TNT and Cartoon Network do not shrink or expand the original closing credits and are all shown along with the production company credits throughout.
Spanish-language networks typically do not use credits or marginalize credits for network promotion; airtime in prime time, Telemundo and UniMás do air promos while filming production is commonly used for scrolling, usually shown in the speed scroll commonly used for basic cable or broadcast syndication. Similar to the aforementioned program-to-program hand-off During the credits, TBS and TNT, as well as Some A & E programs, Presently show one program’s original producing credits, in a dual-box side-by-side style with the next program’s cold open; TBS does this only from 6 am-11 pm and TNT from 6 am-midnight Eastern Time, and a promo may be shown if the next program starts with the opening credits and is followed by a commercial break and the double-box credit format is done with movies airing outside of late night).
Chiller , Adult Swim , Up , One TV , Boomerang (excluding Primetime ),  and Viacom-owned Nick Jr. , BET Her and Tr3s do not show the original program credits full-screen; TV One in particular often uses voice-overs to promote other programs. TeenNick (dating back to its existence in the N) also showed the closing credits of the screen, but it was not a small enough to have used the double-box format, though Since July 2010, a generic credit sequence has been used on most programs.
Since 2006, Disney Channel runs through the scenes of the original program. the channel also overlays the credits in the final scene in special Disney’s airs XD’s original live-action series, which are usually kept separate when aired on Disney XD; Wizards of Waverly Place: The movie, the movie ‘s original made-for-cable movie features feature outtakes during the closing credits. Premium channels Showtime and Starz , AMC and FX, also squeezed down the standard production credits of some or all of their movies to the bottom half of the screen (usually starting at 15-25 seconds in the credits and ending anywhere from 30 seconds to 3 minutes before the end of the credits) with the film credits running at normal speed in order to show behind-the-scenes features or network promos; HBO , Cinemax , Encore (since September 2009), Epix and The Movie Channel do not have any of their movies. Starz and Encore are the only premium channels that promote the original series and future movies.
American Idol , America’s Got Talent , Dancing with the Stars , So You Think You Can Dance , The Voice , and The X Factor are also exceptions, showing the full credits in a rapid-fire card format as the shows close (along with voting disclaimers ).
Between 2008 and 2009, both ABC and Fox aired their respective sitcoms ‘closing credits in the shows’ credit, instead of the generic network. Fox’s airs of the Simpsons also currently have full-screen (from 1996 to 2008, the network usually aired the voice credits for the actors and special guest voices full-screen before switching to generic credits for the rest of the roll).
In the United Kingdom all channels have their own variations. The five main networks and the other. In the early 2000s ITV has been adopted by NBC 2000, with a promo running on the left. This then changed in 2007 when it was written in a letterbox format using 1/4 of the lower half of the screen. Again similar to NBC. When the channel revamped years later they have gone back to old fashioned presentation. Only some specific cable and satellite channels. This leads to viewers switching channels to the networks. Some networks like theBBC also uses a double-box format for the closing credits; the BBC has even got out of its guidelines;  closing credits must be shown on the screen and be either separate cards or scroll vertically, the BBC networks and other unrelated broadcast, cable and satellite channels in the United Kingdom such as Nickelodeon UK will be able to pay for and pay for them. American cable channels.
After closing credits
After the credits, it would be the closing date of the movie company which is still a version of it or a silent version. Sometimes, the MPAA screen would appear in the end. A black FBI Warning screen could appear in the end. In Universal Studios and 20th Century Fox movies (up to 2013), the Deluxe Digital Studios or DVCC logo or any digital service logo would be shown. Many Universal films produced at Universal Studios in Hollywood or Orlando would have a plug for the studios, inviting moviegoers to visit; in the movie Animal House, this plug included a brief reminder to “ask for Babs”, in reference to Delta House foe Jansen Babs , who, after the events in the movie, was hired as a tour guide for Universal Studios in Hollywood.
The credits are part of a television program, after the credits, the production company and distributor’s logo (and in some cases, their copyright and year of production) are played or displayed. Sometimes, there will be a parent company byline, an animation of displaying the logo on one of the logos, FX / SFX which is an additional element / s that appears over the logo, and the will play when these logos appear.
We all Disney animated movies starting with Finding Dory , ict logo plays at ict with the fullest Disney fanfare partner after the credits.
- Acknowledgment (creative arts)
- All persons fictitious disclaimer
- Billing (filmmaking)
- Character generator
- Credit (creative arts)
- Digital on-screen graphic (BUG)
- Lower third
- Opening credits
- Post-credits scene
- Title sequence
- WGA screenwriting credit system
- Jump up^ Superman-DVD commentary by Ilya Salkind, Warner Home Video, 2006.
- Jump up^ Brooker, Charlie (2007-05-12). “Charlie Brooker’s screen burn” . The Guide . The Guardian . Retrieved 2007-07-12 .
- Jump up^ http://articles.baltimoresun.com/1996-07-27/news/1996209061_1_remote-control-change-the-channel-magic-wand
- Jump up^ “USA Boomerang:” NEW “DOG and ECP # 1” .
- Jump up^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/commissioning/tv/production/credit-guidelines/end-credits.shtml