Multimedia translation

Multimedia translation , aussi Sometimes Referred to as Audiovisual translation, is a branch of Specialized translation qui deals with the transfer of multimodal and multimedial texts into Reviews another language and / or culture. [1] and which implies the use of a multimedia electronic system in the translation or in the transmission process.


Multimedia, television, theater, advertisement, audiovisual and mobile device communication.

Audiovisual text can be labeled as multimodal when it is produced by a variety of semiotic resources or ‘modes’. [2] When various modes, such as language , image , music , color and perspective are combined together in different forms of media, with the major role attributed to the screen, [3]

An example of this, called multimodal transcription, is used in cinema. [4] A film is broken down into frames, shots or phases. [4] Every frame, shot or phase is analyzed, looking for all the semiotic modalities operating within each one. [4]

Academic study of multimedia translation

The translation of multimedia is a subject of academic research, a subtopic of translation studies . [5] This interdisciplinary field draws from a wide-range of theories, Such As globalization and post-globalization theories, studies reception, relevant theory, social science and cultural studies, social psychology and deaf studies [6]

Modes of translation

This kind of translation is strongly influenced, both in the form and in the substance of its creative process, by the process and type of device employed. Specific limits are imposed by digital graphics, and by timing and mode of use.


Dubbing , sometimes Known as “lip-synchrony,” Involves Both the translation and Its timing as well as the dubbing actors ‘and actresses’ performance. [7] Once regarded The Most comprehensive form of translation, dubbing follows the “timing, phrasing and lip movement of the original dialogue” as étroitement as possible. [8] Although this mode is usually interlingual, there are some cases of intralingual dubbing, but it is not very common. [7]


The most extensively studied mode of multimedia translation, which is the linguistic practice. [8] The most widely used sub-types, which is commonly displayed in open captions . [7] In places where several languages ​​are spoken, bilingual subtitles are used to show two different language versions of the source text at the same time. [8]

Voice over

Voice over involves the original soundtrack and the translation being broadcast simultaneously. [7] At the beginning, only the original is noticeable until the end. [8] This mode of translation has a realistic effect, so it is usually used in documentaries or interviews. [7] Voice over is considered a “cheap alternative to dubbing” so it is the first choice for translating films in training Communist states and some countries in the Middle East and Asia . [8]


Interpreting is “the translation of an audiovisual product by only one speaker.” [7] Interpreting consists of many different types, such as simultaneous, live, consecutive or prerecorded. [7] This mode is usually used in live interviewsand news broadcasts. [7]


Surtitling is similar to subtitling, however, it does not interrupt. [7] Becoming more frequent in theaters and operahouses , the translation is displayed above the stage or on the backs of seats. [7] Despite being shown in real time, the translations are prepared in advance. [7]

Free commentary

Free commentary is the variation of an audiovisual source to an entirely new audience and the cultural factors or new goals involved. [7] It is delivered with a spontaneous tone, so the product is completely different from the original. [8] The result of this process is to provide more information or omissions. [7] This mode of multimedia translation is used when literacy is not the main goal, such as in children’s television shows , documentaries , humorous videos, movie parodies and corporate videos . [7]

Partial dubbing

Also known as “half-dubbing” or “concise synchronization”, consists of adding prerecorded text to the original soundtrack . [7] While not being a full translation, it provides the necessary information in the target language. [7]


Narration consists of preparing, translating and condensing a text in which is then read by dubbing actors and actresses. [7] The goal is to provide a faithful, scripted summary of the original speech. [8] It can be pre-recorded or performed live. [8] The difference between narration and dubbing is that the text is being read, not performed. [7] Narration is also similar to voice over, but it is different in that the final product is more condensed and is not always completely original. [7]

Simultaneous translation

Also known as “sight translation”, the translation is done on the spot of a prepared script in the target language. [7] It is different from interpretation that “it takes this second language as a pivot language”. [7] It is an option, due to time or funding constraints. [8] As a result, it is only used in film festivals and film archives. [7]

Live subtitling

Also known as “real-time subtitling”, it differs from regular subtitling le fait que le subtitles are not prerecorded and are INSTEAD inserted on the spot. [7] This mode of multimedia is used for live broadcasts for those who are hard of hearing. [7] A “respeaker” takes the original sound and dialogue of a live program or event and “respeaks” it into a speech recognition software. [8] This new version includes the punctuation marks and specific features for this audience, which is then turned into subtitles with as little delay as possible. [8]

Subtitling for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (SDH)

SDH is meant for those who have difficulty hearing dialogue on a film or television show by helping them to “see” the sound. [7] Although similar to subtitling, SDH adds additional information to complement the verbal dimension. [7]Originally, these subtitles were only available for films and pre-recorded broadcasts. [8] However, the “growing number of legislative provisions and minimum quota requirements” for broadcasters and subtitling companies. [8]

Audio description (AD)

AD is Meant For Those Who are blind, visually-impaired or Partially-sighted and assists by providing good narrative has concernant the visual aspects of a movie or television show, for example. [7] The AD track does not interfere with the original dialogue since it is inserted during silent parts. [7] The reader, known as an “audio describer”, makes sure that the audience is not overwhelming the audience with excessive information. [8] These particular descriptions would be recorded, but they can also be done live, (though still prepared in advance) such as in theaters . [7]This mode of multimedia translation has become important in “ensuring the accessibility of audiovisual products to the visually impaired.” [8]


Animation involving translation as well as script writing. [7] The translator takes silent images, such as cartoons, and creates a script from scratch. [7] Although similar to free commentary, it is different that there is no previous script written in animation. [7]

Double version

Double versions are products that involve themselves in their own language. [7] The final product is then dubbed and synchronized so that there is only one language. [7]


Remakes contextualizes a film so that they are in agreement with the target audience and its culture. [7] These translations focus on values ​​and ideology, so the linguistic aspect of the product is less of a priority. [7] This mode of multimedia translation is mostly used for European films remade for American audiences. [7]


Since the late 1990s, a multimedia translation has found a role in education. BA and MA have been established in Europe and the United States (Boston, Dallas, Forlì, Genova, Leeds, London, Pisa, Pittsburgh, Torino, Udine, Barcelona, ​​Vigo, Winterthur ).


  1. Jump up^ González, Luis Pérez. “Audiovisual Translation”, inBaker, Monaand Gabriela Saldanha (eds.),Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, London, 2009, p. 13.
  2. Jump up^ Baldry, Anthony and Paul J. Thibault. Multimodal Transcription and Text Analysis, London & Oakville: Equinox, 2006.
  3. Jump up^ Negroponte, Nicholas. Multimedia[Interview]. Hightech (August 1991): 68.
  4. ^ Jump up to:c Taylor, Christopher J. (2003). “Multimodal Transcription in the Analysis, Translation and Subtitling of Italian Films”. The Translator . 9 (2): 191-205. doi : 10.1080 / 13556509.2003.10799153 .
  5. Jump up^ Diaz Cintas, Jorge. New Trends in Audiovisual Translation. Bristol / Buffalo / Toronto: Multilingual Matters. 2009.ISBN 978-1-84769-154-5.
  6. Jump up^ Pavlović, Nataša (2004). “Addressing Power and Solidarity in TV Subtitling”. Across Languages ​​and Cultures . 5 (2): 211-232. doi : 10.1556 / Acr.5.2004.2.4 .
  7. ^ Jump up to:aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah have aj ak Isabel, Ana; Bartolome, Hernandez; Cabrera, Gustavo Mendiluce (2005). “New Trends in Audiovisual Translation: The Latest Challenging Modes” . Miscelanea . 31 : 89-104.
  8. ^ Jump up to:o Perez-Gonzalez, Luis (2014). Audiovisual Translation Theories, Methods And Issues . New York: Routledge.