Music is a form of artistic , emotional and cultural expression, especially in sequences of sounds and tones by using special instruments or the human voice. It is also one of the largest art and entertainment forms , a professional – education – and science fields , hobby and tools forcommunication, and more.
The word music is coated in Swedish since 1619 and will, through German and French , the Latin musica , which in turn derives from the Greek Mousiké [μουσικη].1 The Greek word referring to the Muses , a group of goddesses that were considered inspire and protect poetry , aural, visual arts , dance and body exercises and spiritual formation in ancient mythology . The Greek term Mousiké (or Mousiké Techné – “Musisk art”) thus had originally another, much broader meaning, which we today call music was only a subset. 2 The word music has subsequently been loaned in almost all western languages through Latin . 3
Definitions of music
Music is a concept that has no generally accepted definition .4 In the history of music can be stated that the question of the types of work that can be called music has changed many times. As already mentioned, referring to the Greek concept Mousiké Techné of what we today would regard as separate art forms. The same goes for the Chinese word yue , which today corresponds to the music in a broad sense, but originally had a meaning similar Mousiké and that has evolved in a similar way as the European music concept. 5 It is not uncommon for musical expression is intimately intertwined with other forms of expression such as movement, poetry and so on. The music included often in a particular social context. 6 language that lacks a musical concept that is similar to ours but instead have concepts that reflect these conditions are known from many parts of the world into the modern age. 7 Already in late antiquity , however, changed Mousiké -begreppets important so that it more came to mean “acoustic figures as independent, artistic expression” 6 .
In medieval Europe, then came music concept most use of the learned art of music, while the peasantry of musical expression was regarded as music opposite – amusiska . This view persisted until the 1700s, when music that concept is widened to include such things as folk music . This broadening of the concept of music has continued until today, so that the music, the musicologist Jan Ling ‘s words, “has become an almost unmanageable universal concepts for different sounding phenomena in time and space.”8 In generaldictionaries in several European languages are definitions of music that clearly starts from the Western art music tradition. It highlights the composition as a musical origin; Music is seen as a scientific or artistic minor amount of aspect of music – mainly tones . These basic elements are arranged in order to create something beautiful, expressive and understandable. 9 Music writer Eduard His Licksdefinition of music as “voiced moving forms” (German: “tönend Bewegte shape” ) has become well known. Since Edgar Varese’s time has been defined as “organized sound” occurred, although some (such as John Cage ) denies the organization’s role. 10 In research branches musicology apply many different types of definitions. The definition of music as organized sound is still present today but the term can also include the circumstances surrounding the music, ie music scene, as well as potentially sounding music such recordings and written music. 11 12
Different traditions focus on very different aspects of the music flow. A common notion, at least in the West, is that the music consists ofmelody , rhythm and harmony .4 However, there are music forms lacking one or more of these constituents, up to the Western music tradition was spread over the world have harmonics been very rare, unvoiced percussion lacking both melody and harmony, Gregorian song lacks harmonics and relatively arrhythmic. There are also other aspects of music that are of great importance such as timbre . 13
In the Western music tradition has often distinguished between art music and folk music , subdivision criticized. Nowadays musicologists rather distinctions between listed and gehörstraderad music, and between composed and improvised music.4
Music can be produced in many different ways, often by singing and / or playing an instrument , by a single person or a group. Music performed only by instruments called instrumental music, while singing vocal music called4 (such completely without instruments is called a cappella ). Also, music is divided by the instruments used. Frequently called subsidence , for example, string quartet ( cello , twoviolins and viola ), rock band ( drums , bass guitar , electric guitar , synth and vocals).
In addition to be performed before an audience , music can be stored or disseminated through various forms of music notation and audio media like radio , phonograph records ,compact discs or files .
What is defined as “the creation” of the music varies with what is in the shape or style is considered as important or central, as well as what the shape is freely established. In many cases, the innovation of the music to be determining the precise sequence of notes , so the person performing the assigned the primary creative responsibility for the completed music.
African American music
African American music known as the musical forms that emerged in the Americas since the musical cultures as slaves from Africa brought with it mixed with local and European musical styles.14 The style blends gave in due course rise to types of music including samba , reggae , jazz and blues and is thus the root of much of today’s popular music.
The Arab conquests, which began in the 600s, created a common cultural area stretching from Spain through North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula to Central Asia . With the help of a common cultural language ( Arabic ) as well as good and extensive communications became central towns crucibles of impulses from the many music cultures that were part of the Arab Empire. It also incorporated a lot of Greek music theory.15
As in the West developed a diet musical tradition that, despite local variations, share many common traits of the Arabic culture. Unlike in Western music, there is no harmonics.Instead deemed melody line variations and nuances to be the primary means of expression. The music is based on modal structures as opposed to Western scales are characterized by both range conditions and melodic models. The Arabic music tonförråd are generally larger and more varied than the Western equivalent. A simplified model can be described as starting from three main types of intervals : Helton Step , half-step and three-quarter-tone steps .15
The classical music tradition of Java and Bali called Gamelanmusik . Gamelan is actually the name of the type of orchestra playing music. The orchestra consists mainly of various types of percussion instruments such as gongs , xylophones and drums , but also of the bamboo flute suling and string instrument rebab . It uses two different tone system: Pélogand sléndro . Pélog divide the octave of seven tones, but only five are used in a given composition. The smallest scale steps in pelog approaching a western halftone in size.Sléndro parts instead the octave into five equal intervals. The music is built up with vocal and instrumental improvisation around a solid melodic theme.16
The Indian subcontinent has a long and rich musical history. The classical Indian music, shastriya Sangita , is the one who follows the rules of raga . In this, there are two closely related traditions, a North Indian and South Indian. Common features of these is the soloist music in small ensembles, often with a borduninstrument and percussion, and vocal or instrumental soloist.17 Like the Arabic music lacks the classical Indian music harmonies, but has a scalable system that allows a much finer division of the octave than Western counterparts. In Indian music theory divided the octave into 22 segments called sruti . These are not exactly the same, but is about the same size as a quarter tone. A scale is constructed using one of two basic scales, of which the most common is called SA-fret and similar Western major scale . Other scales created by altererar and sometimes preclude any of the tones in any of the two basic scales. Improvisation is an important part of melody creation in classical Indian music. Improvisation assumes raga system. Raga is modal, melodic, rhythmic and shape-related rules on how the composition is to be built. The rhythm of Indian music are often very complex. It is based on rhythmic patterns called to speak. Typical instruments in the Indian melody instrument sitar , a kind of long-necked lute, and borduninstrumentet Tanpura . Among percussion instruments are the tabla , a tunable drum type, a special position. 18
It is possible to reconstruct parts of the classical Chinese music tradition as far as 5000 years back in time. Ancient Chinese hymns were slow in tempo and accompanied by large orchestras. Richer sources are, however, only from after 200 BC Throughout the Chinese music history, there have been strong links between music and philosophy. As in the ancient Greek music theory and affective teaching music was considered to have both cosmological parallels and ethical effects.19 During the Shang Dynasty attempted to influence its development by adjusting music performance, mood and instrumentation. 20 The tone and timbre has an important place, more important than the melody, in the classical Chinese music. It uses a pentatonic scale , different modi can be derived from this by choosing different scale steps the root. In vocal music restricted the melodic freedom of Traditional Chinese is a tonal language in which the melodic inflection of a word can affect the meaning. 19
Training and education
People generally have a well-defined ability to hear and estimate and on a single level also create music. Music can be practiced at all levels from basic to quite virtuosic , requiring different levels of training to be able to produce and control a desired musical expression .Basic vocal and in some cases instrument proficiency is now a relatively common knowledge, and is often considered as a part ofgeneral education . Many children learn music fundamentals of their parents.
Many young people are taking private music lessons in some form, often on a municipal or private music or the arts ; several also get training in various forms of amateur ensembles , choirs and orchestras . In many places there is a strong band culture , often supported by non-profit scenes and music associations. There are also primary and secondary schools with special musical direction.
Professional musicians are usually trained in any kind of music college , sometimes in combination with public higher education .However, there is also a musician who is more or less self-taught, so-called autodidacts .
Musical skills can typically be divided into:
- Interpretation / Interpretation
- rhythm Sense
General musical ability (not necessarily tied to specific instruments, styles or techniques) is referred to as musicality . Distinctive musical skills, such as absolute pitch , or extreme technical ability has often been considered as a part of an innate , predetermined “musicality”, but is now considered rather as products of training and adaptivity .
Most forms of music requires a fairly uniform height level in all the above areas, although most musicians also have some sort of specialty. Some institutions have developed special methods for musical training, such as the Japanese Suzuki method .
Studies in the history of music has long focused on the orientations of the European and later Western tradition, in particular. There are attempts to broaden the musical subject of history to include all the world’s music, but it is a Abete still ongoing; World Cultures exhibit a very wide range of different musical styles. It is also true that it is primarily the higherclasses of music that is visible in the written source material, even if the pitch inherited the music can sometimes preserve elements of very old age.4 These restrictions will unfortunately affect the following petition.
Knowledge of music before the first historical sources based on archaeological finds of possible musical instruments , depictions of music-making, as well as comparisons with the cultures in relatively modern times lived under similar conditions to those ancient peoples whose settlements archaeologists dug out. From Paleolithic settlements are among other finds of grooved legs that may have been used as scratch instruments, lanceolate bone with a hole for a string on one end that could have been used as vinare and various rattling instruments.21 There are also benflöjter of old age from both Europe and East Asia (the oldest, about 35 000 years old, were found in the cave Geissenklösterle near Ulm in Germany ). 22
The music seems to have played an important role in the earliest known civilizations in the river Dalarna around theEuphrates and the Tigris , the Indus Valley , the Nile Delta and in China .4 20 The music seems to have filled a function of the religious cult. They recited or sang epic poems to instrumental accompaniment . 20 The first knownrecorded music comes from Mesopotamia , in the case of religious hymns written down about 1250-1200 f.kr (but there are scientists who claim to have found older examples from the same area), and a collection of documents discusses how lyres and harps be sued . 23 There is still disagreement among researchers about how this ancientmusic notation should be interpreted. But the form of texts and other resources can be concluded that sangresponsorial song (switching between the soloist and running) or antifonal song (switching between two half markers). It seems as if you used a diatonic scale system. As in many other ancient high cultures they developed a mathematical orienerad music theory . The evidence suggests that this exerted a great influence on ancient Greek music theory. 24 Even in China, Japan , India and Indonesia have notation systems developed independently of Europe.
In ancient Greece, we can for the first time in the source material glimpse the emergence of an autonomous aural, something that may well have existed before in other high cultures but not left traces in the sources. Of particular importance for Europe’s music history, the music theory and aesthetics that developed in ancient Greece. It was felt that certain keys , scale types and instruments were carriers of certain properties and could affect listeners in the community favorable or unfavorable direction (see etoslära ). Much of the Greek music theory seems to have been influenced by the ancient culture of the peoples of Mesopotamia, but also the Egyptian influence can be traced. From ancient Greece stems not just the music concept, but also a lot of other contemporary music terminology. Three basic concepts of Greek music theory was rhytmos , Melos and harmonia – predecessors of the Swedish language “rhythm”, “Melody” and “harmony”, although the meaning of words changed significantly with the passage of time.25
The Western art music
From the 800s AD you can start tracking the Western art music in the source material, thanks to preserved notdokument.4 The Greek music theory, mediated by Roman and later Arab sources, had been in the service of the Church to standardize church song – what came to be known as Gregorian chant . An important part of the standardization of church singing was the emergence of the church modes as classification of chorale melodies. Church modes were modal scales – have a tonförråd but also some melodic principles such as end tone ( finalists ) and recitation tones. Church modes arose in the meeting between a live choir practice and music theory works based on ancient authorities. There is evidence that liturgical song appeared in the Christian church already several centuries earlier, but it is only with the standardization efforts that resulted in the Gregorian chant as noted melodies emerge. During the 800s begin to write out the melody line contours above the liturgical texts, an early precursor to the modern western stave called Neume . There was a letter notation before, but it is used almost exclusively in theoretical context. Neumsystemet developed gradually towards a more precise tonangivelse. They began to use the grid lines drawn on the parchment (to keep the lines of text straight) who STAFF, and in the 1000’s AD introduced Guido of Arezzo idea to let the line represent three different tones – one for, one on and one over the line. The number of lines was increased gradually with increased accuracy in tonangivelsen as a result. 26
During the Middle Ages developed polyphony in European church music.4 Early polyphony could consist in singing in parallel fifths orblocks , but also of sung with a melismer embellished conform to a slow Gregorian chorale melody. These and other contemporary ways to embellish melodies commonly called Organum . The new opportunities to note melodies created new musical possibilities, you could plan – composing – more complex polyphonic progress, which in turn put even greater demands on the notation. Forward the second half of the 1100s and early 1200s attributed the three- and four-part organumsatser in Paris , by a group of composers such as researchers later come to call the Notre Dame school . 27
In the late 1200s began to use worldly lyrics and melodies in the previous text solve the meetings, it became a kind of learned art form that in the most artful manner as possible, combining the secular melodies with the still basically Gregorian cantus firmusstämman . This direction is usually called Ars Antiqua . The composers could borrow their material from the popular folk music, from dance music at the courts or the troubadour song (and its successors in the late Middle Ages). Ars Antiqua -förespråkarna stood in opposition to a slightly later movement (back then) called Ars nova . The composers who appeared in the Ars Nova -traditionen developed and began using new forms of notation that allowed combinations of two or treunderdelad rhythm. In this way they extended the possibilities of musical expression.28
Music historians have chosen to use the art history term “renaissance” to describe the period from the late 1400s to early 1600s. Much thanks to the invention of printing , but also because the future of music theorist had a more practical approach, the source material is much richer than in the Middle Ages. During this period of change both batch and sound ideals in a way that took away from the current modal system and eventually gave rise to the major / minor – tonal system that prevailed in the West since then, at least until the end of the 1800s . The polyphonic kit technology driven very far, and such Palestrina kit technology has stood as the ideal present day. A desire to revive the ancient drama gave rise tothe opera , and thus a music that was more based on the melody and accompaniment than the polyphonic church and upper-class music.29 During the Renaissance developed many tools to become more technologically advanced. Strings were established, and lean widely used. Also during this period, there were large differences between the profane (folk music) and sacred music (church music).
The period after the Renaissance usually called Baroque in traditional music history. This period lasted roughly from 1600 to 1750. During this time seemed composers such asClaudio Monteverdi , GF Handel , Antonio Vivaldi and JS Bach . These new trends begins in Italy and then spread in different forms across the rest of Europe. The opera was a key driver in the musical development, as well as the emergence of a konsertväsende. Within the sacred music (church music) began the similarities between sacred and secular music blurring. Shapes oratorio , which was inspired by the opera, found its way into the church rooms. Fundamental to much of the music of this period was the general base , a way to note chord . Much of the music was built up around a backing group that played bass and an improvised chords ideal accompaniment.30 The instruments ended up in the center and the music was made for its own sake. String orchestra got its final shape. Polyphony still had a strong position, but was now based on other principles – major / minor tonality – than in previous periods.
From the mid-1700s, it grows style has come to be called the First Viennese School forward. During this period, the sonata , the most characteristic form of music.4 Leading the trend was Joseph Haydn . Although WA Mozart appeared during wienklassicismen. It is during this period that the orchestra gets roughly the form it has today. Ludwig van Beethoven is usually seen as the leader of the next music historical era: Romance . 31
During romanticism stretched the boundaries of the major / minor tonal system more and more, until the frames more or less exploded with such as Claude Debussy’simpressionistic or Arnold Schoenberg’s late romantic music. This created a backlash in which, for example, Schoenberg was leading. Schoenberg tried to create a completely atonalmusic with his twelve-tone system .
The music industry is a very broad industry where all types of knowledge can often requested. Most professional musicians in Sweden are obliged to combine at least two or more ways to earn a living. The most common is to work as a teacher at one of the various levels of education. Second is to appear live , touring and making recordings . There are several private and public funded institutions that offer musicians permanent employment: mainly churches , concert halls , opera houses , theaters , universities , and more.
As a musician, you can focus on singing , special instruments, composing, educational work, and so on, often in combination with different styles.
Professional musicians are first when you get paid to exercise, or compose music. So one must not have gone music college to call himself a professional musician. In the entertainment industry, there are also plenty of professional musicians such as opera singers ,musical actor .
The study of music
The academic study of music called musicology . Key elements are music history and music theory .
Music theory is the scientific study of music, which defines the basis of concepts such as tone and rhythm .
Music in Sweden
Music is a subject in the Swedish primary schools . There is also the national focus on the secondary school aesthetic program , especially as an option on many local program directions, as well as an optional subject in the form of the course Artistic activities of all other high school programs bg .