Release print

release is a copy of a film that is provided to a movie theater for exhibition.


In the photochemical post-production process:

  • Rush prints are one-light, contact-printed copies made from an unedited roll of the original camera negative immediately after processing and screened to the cast and crew in order to ensure that the film can be used in the final film.
  • Workprints , sometimes called cutting copies, are, like rush prints, copies of a negative roll. They are used for editing before the negative is conformed , or cut to match the edited workprint.
  • An answer is in the form of a negative translation or an interpositive , depending on the production workflow, in order to verify that the grading (“timing” in US English) conforms to specifications, so that final adjustments can be made beforehand batch of release prints is made.
  • Showprint is a very high quality projection for the first time. It is usually printed in a negative light, with each shot being usually duplicated, it would normally be used for mass production of prints (eg Eastman 2393 for showprints, and the standard 2383 for mass-production release prints). As a showprint is at least two generations closer to the composited camera than a typical release print, the definition and saturation in the projected image is significantly higher. Showprints have been colloquially referred to as “EKs” (for Eastman Kodak), since “Showprint” is a tradename of DeLuxe, although it is not a registered trademark.



In the traditional photochemical post-production workflow, release prints are usually copies, made of a high-speed continuous contact printer, of an internalgative (sometimes referred to as a negative dupe), which in turn is a copy of an interpositive ( these were sometimes referred to as ‘lavender prints’ in the past), which in turn is a copy, optically imprinted to special features, fades, etc., from the negative camera. In short, a typical release.

Digital intermediate

The post-production of many feature films is made using a digital intermediate workflow, in which the uncut camera is scanned , editing and other post-production functions are carried out using computers, and an internalgative is burnt out to film, from which the release prints are struck in the normal way. This procedure eliminates at least one generation of analog duplication and usually results in a significant higher quality of release prints. It has the advantage that a Digital Cinema Package can be produced as a final output in addition to or instead of film prints, meaning that a single post-production workflow can produce all the required distribution media.

Release print stocks

As of March 2015, Eastman Kodak is the only remaining manufacturer of color release print stock in the world. Along with Kodak, ORWO of Germany also sells black-and-white print stock. [1] Other manufacturers, principally DuPont of the United States, Fujifilm of Japan (the penultimate company to discontinuous color print stock [2] ), Agfa-Gevaert of Germany, Ilford of the United Kingdom and Tasma of the Soviet Union competed with Kodak in the print market market most of the twentieth century.

The person operating the printer on which the print is struck. These include the stock manufacturer, the color temperature of the bulbs in the printer, and the various color filters which may have been introduced during the initial filming or subsequent generation of duplicates.

Theatrical projection

At the theater, release prints are projected through an aperture plate , placed between the film and the projector’s light source. The aperture plate in combination with a prime lens focal distance of the Appropriate qui determined areas of the frame are magnified and projected are masked out and qui, selon the aspect ratio in the movie qui est Intended to be projected. Sometimes a hard matte is used in the field of printing and printing. Some theaters also used aperture plates that mask away part of the frame that ispresupposed to be projected, usually where the screen is too small to accommodate a ratio and does not have a masking system in front of the screen itself. The audience may be confused when significant action appears on the masked-off edges of the picture. Director Brad Bird expressed frustration at this practice, which some theaters applied to his film The Incredibles [1] .

Production and disposal

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Release prints are the expensive. For example, in the United States, it is not unusual for each one to cost around $ 1,500 to print and ship to theaters around the country. The cost of a release is primarily based on its length, the type of print is used and the number of prints being struck in a given run. Laser subtitling release prints of foreign language films adds to the cost per print. [3] Due to the fear of piracy, distributors try to ensure that prints are returned and destroyed after the movie’s theatrical run is complete. [4] However, small numbers of private collectors, usually entering this market via projectionists, who simply retain their prints at the end of the run and do not return them. A significant number of films have been preserved , via prints eventually being donated to film archives and preservation masters printed from them. The polyester film base is often recycled. quote needed ]

EKs (showprints) are more expensive than ever before. Perhaps only five EKs will be made of a distributed distributed feature, compared to thousands of standard prints. They are primarily for first-run and Academy- based theatrical runs in Los Angeles and New York City. This accounts for two of the typically five produced. Two EKs are usually reserved for the film’s producer. The remaining EK is usually archived by the film’s distributor.

Conventional release prints, which are made from timed internalgatives, usually contain black-and-white, and are often “punched” and “inked” for this purpose. Showprints, being made from the negative camera, which are never “punched” or “inked”, have white motor and changeover are just punched (or scribed) directly on the prints by hand, in the lab.


Release Prints
A 35 mm release print in the form that it would typically be delivered to a theater in Europe. Each can contains about 2,000 feet of film, or 20 minutes of running time at 24 fps .
A 35mm release print in the form that it would typically be delivered to a theater in the United States and Canada. Each 2,000 foot reel is held on 4 “core with clip-on plastic flanges, and held vertically in a plastic or steel container that can take between 2 and 4 reels.
This photo shows the form in which 70mm prints are typically shipped to the movie theaters worldwide. Each reel can hold up to 3,000 feet of acetate, magnetic-striped print stock. The weight of the stock film, steel reels and shipping containers makes the cost of shipping significant, and is a major reason why the format has been in decline since the early 1990s.


  1. Jump up^ “OrWo Positive Print Movie PF-2;” . Retrieved 2013-01-20 .
  2. Jump up^ “Announcement on Movie Motion Picture Business of Fujifilm;” . 2012-09-13 . Retrieved 2013-01-20 .
  3. Jump up^ Jan Ivarssonand Mary Carroll,Subtitling, Simrishamn, 1998, pp. 33-37.
  4. Jump up^ Kerry Segrave,Piracy in the Motion Picture Industry, Jefferson, NC, McFarland (2003), p. 178.